Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) & COVID-19

A dedicated space to inform the public about coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) and the COVID-19 disease, curated by dedicated members of the Academy.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Coronavirus Background

Historical reference to coronavirus COVID-19 and its presence in the world.

INTRODUCTION

On December 2019, the first acute respiratory syndrome case reports appeared at the Chinese Wuhan municipality, leading to authorities to classify it as a new coronavirus that had not been associated with humans before. As the disease outbreak has quickly spread across China, without the exact source having been detected, has transmitted to a variety of nations in Asian, European, Australian, African, and North American regions, with expected extension to the entire planet.

The novel coronavirus strain and the disease caused by it received an official name on 12 February 2020, becoming the second strain of SARS and labeled as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and the disease was referred to as COVID-19. This novel strain of coronavirus, with a confirmed human-to-human transmission, has become a primary concern for public health as there is minimal understanding about its mechanisms of action, its criticality, and possible treatment solutions.

As international health organizations keep close monitoring of the situation and attending to the risks involved, our Academy is honorably dedicated to addressing the event with its expert fellows members as an activity of primordial priority.


 

RISK ASSESSMENT

Source: ECDC

The main developments since the 2 March 2020 risk assessment can be summarised as follows:

  • The 14-day cumulative notification rate of COVID-19, a measure of the prevalence of active cases in the population, is 3.28 per 100 000 population in the EU/EEA as of 11 March, ranging from low rates of <0.1 to 16.3 per 100 000 in Italy and 19.8 per 100 000 in Iceland. The 14-days notification rate increased 10-fold over the last 10 days and, assuming no effect of mitigation measures, the EU/EEA and UK is predicted to reach 100 per 100 000 population (the Hubei scenario) by the end of March.
  • While early in the outbreak most cases were reported in China, currently the majority of cases reported are from outside China; and since 2 March, 51% of the cases reported were from EU/EEA countries and the UK.
  • There are increasing reports both globally and in the EU/EEA that local transmission has occurred extensively in multiple locations, without reported travel history to areas reporting community transmission and without epidemiological links to known cases [5-8].
  • As of 11 March 2020, among the 1 597 cases reported in TESSy where the place of infection was reported, 797 (50%) were reported to be infected in the reporting country, 698 (44%) were reported to have acquired infection in another European country and 102 (6%) had acquired infection outside the EU/EEA.
  • In the EU/EEA and the UK, events and locations that involve social interaction or institutional contact have been related to the development of COVID-19 clusters, including workplace interactions, religious events, festivities, health and social care settings, and travel.
  • Transmission events have been reported in hospitals, with COVID-19 cases identified among healthcare workers and patients [9,10] as well as in long-term care facilities. As of 9 March, an ongoing outbreak of COVID-19 at a long-term care facility (LTCF) with 120 residents in Washington State (United States) has had 54 residents transferred to local hospitals and 26 deaths, of which 11 were within the facility. Of the 15 that died in hospital, 13 had tested positive for COVID-19. Additionally, 70 of 180 LTCF employees reported symptoms compatible with COVID-19 [11]. In a LTCF in Île-de-France region, France, as of 10 March, authorities report an outbreak of five cases among residents, including two deaths [12].
  • Reports from some healthcare facilities in northern Italy indicate that intensive care capacity has been exceeded due to the high volume of patients requiring ventilation [13].
  • The Director General of the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a global pandemic on 11 March 2020.

CHRONOLOGY

Source: ECDC

  • On 31 December 2019, the Wuhan Municipal Health Commission in Wuhan City, Hubei province, China, reported a cluster of 27 pneumonia cases (including seven severe cases) of unknown aetiology, with a common reported link to Wuhan's Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market, a wholesale fish and live animal market [1].
  • The market was closed down on 1 January 2020. According to the Wuhan Municipal Health Commission, samples from the market tested positive for novel coronavirus. Cases showed symptoms such as fever, dry cough, dyspnoea; radiological findings showed bilateral lung infiltrates [2].
  • On 9 January 2020, the China CDC reported that a novel coronavirus (later named SARS-CoV-2, the virus causing COVID-19) had been detected as the causative agent for 15 of the 59 cases of pneumonia [3]. On 10 January 2020, the first novel coronavirus genome sequence was made publicly available [4]. The sequence was deposited in the GenBank database (accession number MN908947) and uploaded to the Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data (GISAID). A preliminary analysis showed that the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) clusters with the SARS-related CoV clade and differs from the core genome of known bat CoVs.
  • By 20 January 2020, there were reports of confirmed cases from three countries outside China: Thailand, Japan and South Korea [5]. These cases had all been exported from China.
  • On 23 January 2020, Wuhan City was locked down – with all travel in and out of Wuhan prohibited – and movement inside the city was restricted [6].
  • China changed the case definition several times during the course of the outbreak, which caused uncertainty regarding the exact number of cases and the extent of the spread of the virus, and several EU/EEA countries have modified their testing strategies during the course of the outbreak to test only symptomatic or severe cases.
  • The first European case was reported from France on 24 January 2020. This case had a travel history to China [7]. In Germany, cases were reported on 28 January, related to a person visiting from China [8].
  • On 30 January 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared this first outbreak of novel coronavirus a ‘public health emergency of international concern’ [9]. During the following weeks, several countries implemented entry screening measures for arriving passengers from China [10]. Soon, several major airlines suspended their flights from and to China [11]. Several countries repatriated citizens living in Wuhan.
  • A large number of cases have been diagnosed on board the Diamond Princess, a cruise ship docked in the port of Yokohama, Japan. The first cases were reported on 4 February 2020; the ship was put in quarantine.
  • As of 3 March 2020, 705 cases have been identified among the ship’s passengers.  Of these cases, six died. [12]
  • On 22 February, the Italian authorities reported clusters of cases in Lombardy and additional cases from two other regions, Piedmont and Veneto. Over the following days, cases were reported from several other regions. Transmission appears to have occurred locally, in contrast to first-generation transmission from people returning from affected areas. Transmission events were also reported from hospitals, with COVID-19 cases identified among healthcare workers and patients [13]. During the following week, several European countries reported cases of COVID-19 in travellers from the affected areas in Italy, as well as cases without epidemiological links to Italy, China or other countries with ongoing transmission [13]

Since ECDC’s fifth update on novel coronavirus published on 2 March 2020,  the number of cases and deaths reported in the EU/EEA has been rising, mirroring the trends seen in China in January-early February and in northern Italy in late February. If this trend continues, based on the quick pace of growth of the epidemic observed in China and northern Italy, it is likely that similar situations may be seen in other EU/EEA Member States.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Geographic distribution of COVID-19

Learn about which locations are affected and view graphical representations of epidemiological curves.

Live Updates COVID-19 CASES
  • World 242,355,857
    World
    Confirmed: 242,355,857
    Active: 17,734,766
    Recovered: 219,691,611
    Death: 4,929,480
  • USA 45,996,507
    USA
    Confirmed: 45,996,507
    Active: 9,537,524
    Recovered: 35,710,331
    Death: 748,652
  • India 34,108,996
    India
    Confirmed: 34,108,996
    Active: 178,065
    Recovered: 33,478,247
    Death: 452,684
  • Brazil 21,664,879
    Brazil
    Confirmed: 21,664,879
    Active: 222,789
    Recovered: 20,838,188
    Death: 603,902
  • UK 8,541,192
    UK
    Confirmed: 8,541,192
    Active: 1,410,431
    Recovered: 6,991,909
    Death: 138,852
  • Russia 8,060,752
    Russia
    Confirmed: 8,060,752
    Active: 794,946
    Recovered: 7,040,481
    Death: 225,325
  • Turkey 7,714,379
    Turkey
    Confirmed: 7,714,379
    Active: 502,662
    Recovered: 7,143,657
    Death: 68,060
  • France 7,096,043
    France
    Confirmed: 7,096,043
    Active: 87,815
    Recovered: 6,890,873
    Death: 117,355
  • Iran 5,809,967
    Iran
    Confirmed: 5,809,967
    Active: 338,061
    Recovered: 5,347,483
    Death: 124,423
  • Argentina 5,274,766
    Argentina
    Confirmed: 5,274,766
    Active: 17,741
    Recovered: 5,141,288
    Death: 115,737
  • Spain 4,990,767
    Spain
    Confirmed: 4,990,767
    Active: 61,200
    Recovered: 4,842,516
    Death: 87,051
  • Italy 4,722,188
    Italy
    Confirmed: 4,722,188
    Active: 74,546
    Recovered: 4,515,987
    Death: 131,655
  • Germany 4,410,332
    Germany
    Confirmed: 4,410,332
    Active: 150,144
    Recovered: 4,164,600
    Death: 95,588
  • Indonesia 4,236,287
    Indonesia
    Confirmed: 4,236,287
    Active: 16,697
    Recovered: 4,076,541
    Death: 143,049
  • Mexico 3,762,689
    Mexico
    Confirmed: 3,762,689
    Active: 355,694
    Recovered: 3,122,072
    Death: 284,923
  • South Africa 2,917,255
    South Africa
    Confirmed: 2,917,255
    Active: 20,421
    Recovered: 2,808,160
    Death: 88,674
  • Ukraine 2,679,185
    Ukraine
    Confirmed: 2,679,185
    Active: 272,543
    Recovered: 2,344,799
    Death: 61,843
  • Peru 2,191,171
    Peru
    Confirmed: 2,191,171
    Active: 1,991,243
    Recovered: ?
    Death: 199,928
  • Netherlands 2,054,960
    Netherlands
    Confirmed: 2,054,960
    Active: 70,045
    Recovered: 1,966,652
    Death: 18,263
  • Canada 1,687,608
    Canada
    Confirmed: 1,687,608
    Active: 30,996
    Recovered: 1,628,009
    Death: 28,603
  • Chile 1,672,998
    Chile
    Confirmed: 1,672,998
    Active: 11,195
    Recovered: 1,624,180
    Death: 37,623
  • Bangladesh 1,566,296
    Bangladesh
    Confirmed: 1,566,296
    Active: 9,443
    Recovered: 1,529,068
    Death: 27,785
  • Belgium 1,292,887
    Belgium
    Confirmed: 1,292,887
    Active: 73,044
    Recovered: 1,194,046
    Death: 25,797
  • Pakistan 1,266,204
    Pakistan
    Confirmed: 1,266,204
    Active: 25,205
    Recovered: 1,212,687
    Death: 28,312
  • Sweden 1,163,595
    Sweden
    Confirmed: 1,163,595
    Active: 17,830
    Recovered: 1,130,842
    Death: 14,923
  • Switzerland 858,198
    Switzerland
    Confirmed: 858,198
    Active: 35,076
    Recovered: 811,941
    Death: 11,181
  • Saudi Arabia 548,018
    Saudi Arabia
    Confirmed: 548,018
    Active: 2,214
    Recovered: 537,037
    Death: 8,767
  • Dominican Republic 372,077
    Dominican Republic
    Confirmed: 372,077
    Active: 5,930
    Recovered: 362,054
    Death: 4,093
  • Qatar 238,079
    Qatar
    Confirmed: 238,079
    Active: 896
    Recovered: 236,575
    Death: 608
  • Nigeria 209,546
    Nigeria
    Confirmed: 209,546
    Active: 9,162
    Recovered: 197,546
    Death: 2,838
  • Singapore 154,725
    Singapore
    Confirmed: 154,725
    Active: 26,908
    Recovered: 127,571
    Death: 246
  • Australia 149,421
    Australia
    Confirmed: 149,421
    Active: 31,442
    Recovered: 116,402
    Death: 1,577
  • China 96,601
    China
    Confirmed: 96,601
    Active: 505
    Recovered: 91,460
    Death: 4,636

😷 Global Stats

242,355,857 Total Cases
4,929,480 Deaths
219,691,611 Recovered
17,734,766 Active Cases
2.0% Death %
90.6% Recovered %
States cases Confirmed cases Recovered cases Death cases
California 4737919 2519626 71087
Texas 4190277 3977995 69760
Florida 3674892 3036277 58143
New York 2593557 2159356 56596
Illinois 1673346 1554773 28292
Georgia 1620694 1141781 28076
Pennsylvania 1517231 1365507 30638
Ohio 1503102 1387104 23616
North Carolina 1455188 1399393 17575
Tennessee 1267363 1231344 15973
Michigan 1229056 962955 23017
New Jersey 1183289 1052593 27768
Arizona 1137636 1050257 20674
Indiana 1001697 933229 16370
Virginia 909499 895961 13538
South Carolina 888189 671264 13321
Wisconsin 859992 850811 9181
Missouri 842590 640890 12504
Massachusetts 838347 819483 18864
Alabama 815324 800061 15263
Minnesota 763915 736234 8581
Louisiana 753532 739144 14388
Kentucky 728860 719435 9425
Colorado 712125 560598 8125
Washington 705420 302708 8385
Oklahoma 635865 618725 9402
Maryland 551807 541072 10735
Utah 533526 501530 3095
Arkansas 507759 493554 8221
Iowa 507525 423885 6748
Mississippi 499838 482091 9957
Nevada 443420 391304 7466
Kansas 424802 383894 6170
Connecticut 398979 373025 8707
Oregon 353368 282154 4226
Idaho 279921 127084 3316
Nebraska 277436 274416 3020
New Mexico 266148 236680 4952
West Virginia 261890 249210 4145
Rhode Island 177280 174413 2867
Montana 167268 154021 2206
South Dakota 151088 143206 2203
North Dakota 142407 137407 1690
Delaware 140651 126932 2037
New Hampshire 130040 124276 1532
Alaska 125445 79934 659
Maine 98607 97505 1102
Wyoming 98567 94367 1136
Hawaii 82591 81715 876
District Of Columbia 63345 62160 1185
Vermont 37651 32167 347
Puerto Rico 183501 146565 3209
Guam 17154 14206 226
United States Virgin Islands 7085 6892 78
Northern Mariana Islands 183 181 2
American Samoa 4 4 0
US Military 378444 352171 553
Veteran Affairs 358204 334645 15682
Federal Prisons 56498 56227 271
Navajo Nation 34999 33039 1464
Grand Princess Ship 122 115 7
Wuhan Repatriated 3 3 0
Diamond Princess Ship 46 46 0
total 45,996,507 35,710,331 748,652
Country Confirmed Recovered Death
United States 45,996,507
35,710,331
748,652
N/A
India 34,108,996
673
33,478,247
7626
452,684
N/A
Brazil 21,664,879
20,838,188
603,902
N/A
United Kingdom 8,541,192
6,991,909
138,852
N/A
Russian Federation 8,060,752
7,040,481
225,325
N/A
Turkey 7,714,379
7,143,657
68,060
N/A
France 7,096,043
6,890,873
117,355
N/A
Iran, Islamic Republic of 5,809,967
5,347,483
124,423
N/A
Argentina 5,274,766
5,141,288
115,737
N/A
Spain 4,990,767
4,842,516
87,051
N/A
Worldwide 242,355,857
46379
219,691,611
33481
4,929,480
1159
20 Oct 2021, 6:25 AM (GMT)

COVID-19 GLOBAL STATISTICS

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Country Confirmed cases Death cases Recovered cases

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Questions & Answers

The most relevant questions about the disease COVID-19 caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus.

MEDICAL INFORMATION

What symptoms does a COVID-19 infection present?

Coronavirus can make anyone sick regardless of their age, sex, race or ethnicity. 

The virus can cause mild, flu-like symptoms such as:

  • Fever
  • Dry cough
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Muscular pain
  • Tiredness
  • Pneumonia in both lungs

With or without the emergency warning signs including:

  • Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath
  • Persistent pain or pressure in the chest
  • New confusion or inability to arouse
  • Blueish lips or face

In addition to cough, fever and shortness of breath, there may be nonspecific symptoms such as sore throat, myalgia, fatigue, nausea, and diarrhea as initial symptoms in some cases.

What treatments are there for the COVID-19 disease?

Healthcare providers are focused on treating clinical symptoms, including difficulty breathing, fever, cough, tiredness, and muscle pain. As the severity of the disease intensifies, implementing therapy for oxygenation, as well as other protocols for supportive care can be of high efficiency.

When to test for COVID-19?

Your current location will address the outbreak differently, depending on its stage at the epidemiological curves and will provide different options both for testing and for other medical attention services. Circumstances will pave way for nations differently as testing and healthcare protocols are adapted to local capacities and needs.

According to the ECDC, "national authorities may decide to only test subgroups of suspected cases based on the national capacity to test, the availability of necessary equipment for testing, the level of community transmission of COVID-19, or any other criteria. As a rational approach, national authorities may consider prioritising testing in the following groups:

  • hospitalised patients with severe respiratory infections;
  • cases with acute respiratory infections in hospital or long-term care facilities;
  • patients with acute respiratory infections or influenza-like illness in certain outpatient clinics or hospitals in order to assess the extent of virus circulation in the population;
  • elderly people with underlying chronic medical conditions such as lung disease, cancer, heart failure, cerebrovascular disease, renal disease, liver disease, diabetes, and immunocompromising conditions"

Where can someone get tested for COVID-19?

In case you find yourself presenting symptoms of COVID-19, do not hesitate to contact you local healthcare services by email, chat or by telephone. Further medical testing may be conducted if your healthcare provider finds a reason to and will guide you on the procedure of attention.


Who is more at risk?

Elders and people with other current medical conditions such as cancer, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, and hypertension, for example, are at a greater risks of presenting severe symptoms.

What is the risk for children?

Evidence of COVID-19 in children have been documented to be mild and rare, as a Chinese study explains, where only 2% of the cases were under 18 years of age. The study addresses the fact that fewer than 3% of the people in the same study developed severe or critical disease.

What is the risk for women during pregnancy?

There is no evidence that the foetus carried by a pregnant woman infected with COVID-19 would be affected, meaning that the mother would not transmit the virus to the baby. Additionally, there are no evident differences suggesting pregnancy will increase the severity of the disease.

WAMS INFOGRAPHIC ON COVID-19

This infographic provides basic information on novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), how it spreads, symptoms, how to avoid catching or spreading the virus, and other useful details.




PREVENTION

You can help stop COVID-19 by knowing the signs and symptoms:

Seek medical advice if you have fever, cough or shortness of breath after having been in close contact with a person known to have COVID-19 or if you live in or have recently been in an area with ongoing spread of COVID-19.

What to do to prevent getting infected by COVID-19?

Simple things you can do to help keep yourself and others healthy:

  • Wash your hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds or use with alcohol-based solutions, gels or tissues.
  • Hand wash should be done perforce after blowing your nose, coughing, or sneezing, after going to the bathroom and before eating or preparing food.
  • Avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth with unwashed hands.
  • Stay home when you are sick and remain at least a metre away from others infected.
  • Cover your cough or sneeze with a tissue, then throw the tissue in the trash.

What to do if you have been in close contact with people that have COVID-19?

People who have been in close contact with a person known to have COVID-19 or people who live in or have recently been in an area with ongoing spread are at an increased risk of exposure. Notify public health authorities in your location to be able to receive proper attention and directions on how to proceed best.

If you develop any symptoms, you should immediately call your healthcare provider for advice, mentioning that you have been in contact with someone with COVID-19.




MYTH BUSTERS

What can face masks do to protect against COVID-19?

If you are infected, the use of surgical face masks may reduce the risk of you infecting other people, but there is no evidence that face masks will effectively prevent you from being infected with the virus. In fact, it is possible that the use of face masks may even increase the risk of infection due to a false sense of security and increased contact between hands, mouth and eyes.

What efforts are being done to develop a vaccine?

There are currently no vaccines against human coronaviruses, including the virus that causes COVID-19. This is why it is very important to prevent infection and to contain further spread of the virus. The United States FDA is working with vaccine developers and other researchers and manufacturers to help expedite the development and availability of medical products such as vaccines, antibodies, and drugs to prevent COVID-19.

The development of vaccines takes time. Several pharmaceutical companies are working on vaccine candidates. It will, however, take months or years before any vaccine can be widely used, as it needs to undergo extensive testing to determine its safety and efficacy.

What protection does the influenza vaccine have against COVID-19?

Influenza and the virus that causes COVID-19 are two very different viruses and the seasonal influenza vaccine will not protect against COVID-19.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

SAFETY MEASURES WHEN TRAVELLING

 

What precautions should I take if I am visiting an area of local or community transmission?

Travellers visiting areas of local or community COVID-19 transmission should adhere to strict hygiene measures, wash hands with soap and water regularly, and/or use alcohol-based hand sanitisers. Touching the face with unwashed hands should be avoided. Travellers should avoid contact with sick persons, in particular those with respiratory symptoms and fever. It should be emphasised that older people and those with underlying health conditions should take these precautionary measures very seriously.

What if I have recently been in an area of local or community transmission?

Travellers returning from areas of local or community transmission should monitor their health for 14 days. People with symptoms should contact their healthcare specialist via telephone first, and indicate their exposure and travel history before seeking medical attention in person. Symptomatic people should avoid contact with others until they have received advice from a healthcare specialist.

WHO: Coronavirus disease (COVID-2019) situation reports

 

What is the risk of infection when travelling by plane?

If it is established that a COVID-19 case has been on an airplane, other passengers who were at risk (as defined by how near they were seated to the infected passenger) will be contacted by public health authorities. Should you have questions about a flight you have taken, please contact your local health authority for advice. The risk of being infected on an airplane cannot be excluded, but is currently considered to be low for an individual traveller. The risk of being infected in an airport is similar to that of any other place where many people gather.

Why are people not being checked for COVID-19 at the airport when arriving from areas of local or community transmission?

There is evidence that checking people at the airport (known as entry screening) is not very effective in preventing the spread of the virus, especially when people do not have symptoms. It is generally considered more useful to provide those arriving at airports with clear information explaining what to do if they develop symptoms after arrival.

Where can I learn more?

Each EU/EEA country may issue specific advice to travellers to areas with local or community transmission of COVID-19. Consult your local health authority or the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to get advice tailored for residents in your setting.

For an updated list of areas of presumed community transmission, please refer to WHO situation reports for country classification.

WHO: Coronavirus disease (COVID-2019) situation reports

COVID-19 AND ANIMALS & FOOD PRODUCTS

What is the risk of COVID-19 infection from animals or animal products imported from affected areas?

There is no evidence that any of the animals or animal products authorised for entry into the European Union pose a risk to the health of EU citizens as a result of the presence of COVID-19.

What is the risk of COVID-19 infection from food products imported from affected areas?

There has been no report of transmission of COVID-19 via food and therefore there is no evidence that food items imported into the European Union in accordance with the applicable animal and public health regulations pose a risk for the health of EU citizens in relation to COVID-19. The main mode of transmission is from person to person.

What is the risk of COVID-19 infection from contact with pets and other animals in the EU?

Current research links COVID-19 to certain types of bat as the original source, but does not exclude the involvement of other animals. Several types of coronaviruses can infect animals and can be transmitted to other animals and people. There is evidence that companion animals (e.g. dogs or cats) have a risk of infection when in close contact with COVID-19 infected humans. As a general precaution, it is always wise to observe basic principles of hygiene when in contact with animals.




National information resources for the public on COVID-19

EUROPE:

 

Country Institute  Website National helplines
Austria Federal Ministry Republic of Austria: Social Affairs, Health, Care and Consumer Protection Federal sozialministerium.at +43 800 555 621
Belgium Federal Public Service: Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment info-coronavirus.be +32 800 14689
Bulgaria Ministry of Health mh.government.bg +359 2 807 87 57
Croatia Croatian Institute of Public Health hzjz.hr +385 91 468 30 32;  +385 99 468 30 01
Cyprus Ministry of Health moh.gov.cy +357 1420
Czech Republic Ministry of Health mzcr.cz +420 724 810 106; +420 725 191 367
Denmark Danish Health Authority sst.dk +45 72 22 74 59
Estonia Ministry of Social Affairs koroonaviirus.ee +372 634 6630; +372 634 1220
Finland Finnish institute for health and welfare thl.fi +358 295 535 535
France Government of the French Republic gouvernement.fr +33 800 130 000
Germany Federal Ministry of Health bundesgesundheitsministerium.de +49 30 346 465 100
Greece National Public Health Institute of Greece eody.gov.gr/ +30 210 521 2054
Hungary Hungarian Government koronavirus.gov.hu +36 6 80 277 455; +36 6 80 277 456
Iceland Directorate of Health landlaeknir.is +354 544 4113, 1700
Ireland Health Service Executive hse.ie +353 1850 24 1850
Italy Ministry of Health salute.gov.it +39 1500
Latvia Centre for the Prevention and Control of Diseases spkc.gov.lv +371 67387661
Liechtenstein Government of Liechtenstein regierung.li/coronavirus +423 230 30 30
Lithuania Ministry of Health sam.lrv.lt +370 8 618 79984
Luxembourg Ministry of Health msan.gouvernement.lu +352 8002 8080
Malta Government of Malta deputyprimeminister.gov.mt +356 21324086
Netherlands National Institute for Public Health and the Environment rivm.nl +31 800-1351
Norway Norwegian Institute of Public Health fhi.no +47 815 55 015
Poland Government of Poland gov.pl +48 800 190 590
Portugal Ministry of Health dgs.pt/corona-virus +351 808 24 24 24
Romania Ministry of Health ms.ro +40 800 800 358
Slovakia Public Health Authority of the Slovak Republic uvzsr.sk +421 917 222 682
Slovenia Government of Slovenia gov.si +386 31 646 617; 080 1404*
Spain Government of Spain mscbs.gob.es Regional numbers are found here
Sweden Public Health Agency of Sweden folkhalsomyndigheten.se +46 113 13
Switzerland Federal Office of Public Health bag.admin.ch/novel-cov +41 58 463 00 00
UK Government of UK gov.uk 111 (dialled from UK)

References

  1. Wuhan City Health Committee (WCHC). Wuhan Municipal Health and Health Commission's briefing on the current pneumonia epidemic situation in our city 2019 [updated 31 December 2019, 14 January 2020].
  2. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Risk assessment: Outbreak of acute respiratory syndrome associated with a novel coronavirus, Wuhan, China; first update 2020 [updated 22 January 2020]. Stockholm: ECDC; 2020.
  3. Xinhuanet. Experts claim that a new coronavirus is identified in Wuhan 2020 [14 January 2020].
  4. Holmes E. Initial genome release of novel coronavirus 2020 [14 January 2020]. Available from: http://virological.org/t/initial-genome-release-of-novel-coronavirus/319.
  5. World Health Organization. Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) SITUATION REPORT – 1, 20 January 2020. Geneva: WHO; 2020.
  6. Du Z, Wang L, Chauchemez S, Xu X, Wang X, Cowling BJ, et al. Risk for transportation of 2019 novel coronavirus disease from Wuhan to other cities in China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020 May.
  7. Santé publique France. Epidémie de coronavirus Covid-19 au départ de Wuhan, Chine. Paris: Santé publique France; 2020. [Cited on 14 February 2020].
  8. Bayerisches Staatsministerium für Gesundheit und Pflege. Bestätigter Coronavirus - Fall in Bayern – Infektionsschutzmaßnahmen laufen. Munich: BSfGuP; 2020.
  9. World Health Organization. Statement on the second meeting of the International Health Regulations (2005) Emergency Committee regarding the outbreak of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). Geneva: WHO; 2020.
  10. Phelan A, Katz R, Gostin L. The novel coronavirus originating in Wuhan, China: challenges for global health governance. JAMA. 2020;323(8):709-710. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.1097.
  11. Chinazzi M, Davis JT, Ajelli M, Gioanni C, Litvinova M, et al. The effect of travel restrictions on the spread of the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) outbreak. medRxiv pre-print.
  12. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Situation update, 3 March 2020. Stockholm: ECDC; 2020.
  13. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Outbreak of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID19): situation in Italy – 23 February 2020. ECDC: Stockholm; 2020.

 

 

 

 

 

 

WAMS’ COVID-19 PATIENT MANAGEMENT PROTOCOL

WAMS, the World Academy of Medical Sciences, as the sole official world institution of medical sciences of its kind, puts its principal aim on the task of clearly informing the public and medical audience about the infamous coronavirus COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic and its impact on global human health through its COVID-19 program and through its free digital publication "WAMS' COVID-19 Patient Management Protocol". It brings notice to the characteristics of the phenomenon in various aspects of primordial relevance as an international emergency. This task is being shared among the members of the Academy and its scientific partners across the world with a united spirit of cooperation and dedication to the adequate dissemination of information regarding COVID-19's historical background, geographical distribution, risk assessment, personal health guide, containment & prevention measures, as well as recommendations for public and private sectors to follow.

WAMS Coronavirus Safety Committee

Our dedicated members addressing the pandemic situation.

ilievasiliev2

Dr. Ilie Vasiliev, MD

First Senior Vice President
valerishev

Dr. Valeri Shevchenko, MD

Chairman of the WAMS International Board of Biotechnology/Medical Technology
ettore

Dr. Ettore Piero Valente, MD

Chairman of the WAMS European Division
azfar

Dr. M. Azfar, MS, FRCSEd, FACS

Chairman of the WAMS Middle-East and North African Division
ira2

Ira S. Pastor

Chief Global Officer
joeltraje

Dr. Joel I. Osorio, MD

Chairman of the WAMS Americas Division
alexdelaparra

Alejandro De La Parra Solomon

Honorary Member of the Academy Faculty
walternbini
michaelcoroneos

Dr. Michael Coroneos, FRCS, FACS

Chairman of the Education and Training Board
sergei3

Dr. Sergei Paylian, MD

Member of the WAMS Executive Council
kuohui

Dr. Kuo-Hui Su, MD

Chairman WAMS International Medical Research Council
gerardo

Dr. Gerardo Jiménez Sánchez, MD, PhD

Chairman of the WAMS Genomic Medicine Division
larisaspinel

Dr. Larisa Spinei, MD, PhD

Chairwoman of the WAMS International Board of Biostatistics
constantiniavorschi

Dr. Constantin Iavorschi MD, PhD

Chairman of the WAMS International Board of Pulmonary Medicine
elenatudor

Dr. Elena Tudor, MD, PhD

Chairwoman of the WAMS International Board of Tuberculosis
Osinakachi SQUARE white

Osinakachi Akuma Kalu

Chairman of the Council for the Youth Development of Nigeria
sergiumatcovschi

Dr. Sergiu Matcovschi, MD, PhD

Chairman of the WAMS International Board of Internal Medicine
vladimirvartanov

Dr. Vladimir Vartanov, MD, PhD

Chairman of the WAMS International Board of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care
shanin

Dr. Shahin Gavanji, MD

Chairman of the Asian Council
Jaspal

Dr. Chandanpreet Singh Jaspal, DDS, BDS

Chairman of the WAMS Dentistry Division
azizollah

Dr. Azizollah Bakhtari, MD

Chairman of the WAMS Council of Iran
douglas

Dr. Douglas Colina, MD

Chairman of the WAMS Venezuelan Council
emad

Dr. Emad Fahim, MBBS

Fellow of the Academy
fengchiho

Dr. Feng-Chi (Frank) Ho, PhD

Chairman of the WAMS Singaporean Council
drfeliciatshite

Dr. Felicia Tshite, MD, BSc, MBChB

Chairwoman of the WAMS South African Council
drfares

Dr. Youssef Fares, MD, PhD, FACS, FICS

Chairman, WAMS National Council of Lebanon
ismailburud

Dr. Ismail Burud, MD

Chairman of the WAMS Malaysian Council
2b5c9aa

Dr. M. Luisetto, MD

Chairman of the Italian Council
ricardoge

Dr. Ricardo Ge Martins, MD

Chairman of the WAMS Brazilian Council
alpha

Dr. Alpha I. Balde, MD, MS

Chairman of the WAMS Chinese Council
MirtaDAmbra

Dr. Teresa Mirta D’Ambra, MD

Chairwoman of the WAMS Argentinian Council
Lejla S

Dr. Lejla Stojanovic, MD

Chairwoman of the WAMS Council of Serbia
ericklien

Eric Klien

Honorary Member of the Academy Faculty
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