Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) & COVID-19

A dedicated space to inform the public about coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) and the COVID-19 disease, curated by dedicated members of the Academy.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Coronavirus Background

Historical reference to coronavirus COVID-19 and its presence in the world.

INTRODUCTION

On December 2019, the first acute respiratory syndrome case reports appeared at the Chinese Wuhan municipality, leading to authorities to classify it as a new coronavirus that had not been associated with humans before. As the disease outbreak has quickly spread across China, without the exact source having been detected, has transmitted to a variety of nations in Asian, European, Australian, African, and North American regions, with expected extension to the entire planet.

The novel coronavirus strain and the disease caused by it received an official name on 12 February 2020, becoming the second strain of SARS and labeled as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and the disease was referred to as COVID-19. This novel strain of coronavirus, with a confirmed human-to-human transmission, has become a primary concern for public health as there is minimal understanding about its mechanisms of action, its criticality, and possible treatment solutions.

As international health organizations keep close monitoring of the situation and attending to the risks involved, our Academy is honorably dedicated to addressing the event with its expert fellows members as an activity of primordial priority.


 

RISK ASSESSMENT

Source: ECDC

The main developments since the 2 March 2020 risk assessment can be summarised as follows:

  • The 14-day cumulative notification rate of COVID-19, a measure of the prevalence of active cases in the population, is 3.28 per 100 000 population in the EU/EEA as of 11 March, ranging from low rates of <0.1 to 16.3 per 100 000 in Italy and 19.8 per 100 000 in Iceland. The 14-days notification rate increased 10-fold over the last 10 days and, assuming no effect of mitigation measures, the EU/EEA and UK is predicted to reach 100 per 100 000 population (the Hubei scenario) by the end of March.
  • While early in the outbreak most cases were reported in China, currently the majority of cases reported are from outside China; and since 2 March, 51% of the cases reported were from EU/EEA countries and the UK.
  • There are increasing reports both globally and in the EU/EEA that local transmission has occurred extensively in multiple locations, without reported travel history to areas reporting community transmission and without epidemiological links to known cases [5-8].
  • As of 11 March 2020, among the 1 597 cases reported in TESSy where the place of infection was reported, 797 (50%) were reported to be infected in the reporting country, 698 (44%) were reported to have acquired infection in another European country and 102 (6%) had acquired infection outside the EU/EEA.
  • In the EU/EEA and the UK, events and locations that involve social interaction or institutional contact have been related to the development of COVID-19 clusters, including workplace interactions, religious events, festivities, health and social care settings, and travel.
  • Transmission events have been reported in hospitals, with COVID-19 cases identified among healthcare workers and patients [9,10] as well as in long-term care facilities. As of 9 March, an ongoing outbreak of COVID-19 at a long-term care facility (LTCF) with 120 residents in Washington State (United States) has had 54 residents transferred to local hospitals and 26 deaths, of which 11 were within the facility. Of the 15 that died in hospital, 13 had tested positive for COVID-19. Additionally, 70 of 180 LTCF employees reported symptoms compatible with COVID-19 [11]. In a LTCF in Île-de-France region, France, as of 10 March, authorities report an outbreak of five cases among residents, including two deaths [12].
  • Reports from some healthcare facilities in northern Italy indicate that intensive care capacity has been exceeded due to the high volume of patients requiring ventilation [13].
  • The Director General of the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a global pandemic on 11 March 2020.

CHRONOLOGY

Source: ECDC

  • On 31 December 2019, the Wuhan Municipal Health Commission in Wuhan City, Hubei province, China, reported a cluster of 27 pneumonia cases (including seven severe cases) of unknown aetiology, with a common reported link to Wuhan's Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market, a wholesale fish and live animal market [1].
  • The market was closed down on 1 January 2020. According to the Wuhan Municipal Health Commission, samples from the market tested positive for novel coronavirus. Cases showed symptoms such as fever, dry cough, dyspnoea; radiological findings showed bilateral lung infiltrates [2].
  • On 9 January 2020, the China CDC reported that a novel coronavirus (later named SARS-CoV-2, the virus causing COVID-19) had been detected as the causative agent for 15 of the 59 cases of pneumonia [3]. On 10 January 2020, the first novel coronavirus genome sequence was made publicly available [4]. The sequence was deposited in the GenBank database (accession number MN908947) and uploaded to the Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data (GISAID). A preliminary analysis showed that the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) clusters with the SARS-related CoV clade and differs from the core genome of known bat CoVs.
  • By 20 January 2020, there were reports of confirmed cases from three countries outside China: Thailand, Japan and South Korea [5]. These cases had all been exported from China.
  • On 23 January 2020, Wuhan City was locked down – with all travel in and out of Wuhan prohibited – and movement inside the city was restricted [6].
  • China changed the case definition several times during the course of the outbreak, which caused uncertainty regarding the exact number of cases and the extent of the spread of the virus, and several EU/EEA countries have modified their testing strategies during the course of the outbreak to test only symptomatic or severe cases.
  • The first European case was reported from France on 24 January 2020. This case had a travel history to China [7]. In Germany, cases were reported on 28 January, related to a person visiting from China [8].
  • On 30 January 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared this first outbreak of novel coronavirus a ‘public health emergency of international concern’ [9]. During the following weeks, several countries implemented entry screening measures for arriving passengers from China [10]. Soon, several major airlines suspended their flights from and to China [11]. Several countries repatriated citizens living in Wuhan.
  • A large number of cases have been diagnosed on board the Diamond Princess, a cruise ship docked in the port of Yokohama, Japan. The first cases were reported on 4 February 2020; the ship was put in quarantine.
  • As of 3 March 2020, 705 cases have been identified among the ship’s passengers.  Of these cases, six died. [12]
  • On 22 February, the Italian authorities reported clusters of cases in Lombardy and additional cases from two other regions, Piedmont and Veneto. Over the following days, cases were reported from several other regions. Transmission appears to have occurred locally, in contrast to first-generation transmission from people returning from affected areas. Transmission events were also reported from hospitals, with COVID-19 cases identified among healthcare workers and patients [13]. During the following week, several European countries reported cases of COVID-19 in travellers from the affected areas in Italy, as well as cases without epidemiological links to Italy, China or other countries with ongoing transmission [13]

Since ECDC’s fifth update on novel coronavirus published on 2 March 2020,  the number of cases and deaths reported in the EU/EEA has been rising, mirroring the trends seen in China in January-early February and in northern Italy in late February. If this trend continues, based on the quick pace of growth of the epidemic observed in China and northern Italy, it is likely that similar situations may be seen in other EU/EEA Member States.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Geographic distribution of COVID-19

Learn about which locations are affected and view graphical representations of epidemiological curves.

Live Updates COVID-19 CASES
  • World 155,813,264
    World
    Confirmed: 155,813,264
    Active: 18,600,997
    Recovered: 133,957,390
    Death: 3,254,877
  • USA 33,320,840
    USA
    Confirmed: 33,320,840
    Active: 6,705,234
    Recovered: 26,022,472
    Death: 593,134
  • India 21,070,852
    India
    Confirmed: 21,070,852
    Active: 3,571,625
    Recovered: 17,269,076
    Death: 230,151
  • Brazil 14,936,464
    Brazil
    Confirmed: 14,936,464
    Active: 992,247
    Recovered: 13,529,572
    Death: 414,645
  • France 5,706,378
    France
    Confirmed: 5,706,378
    Active: 871,329
    Recovered: 4,729,418
    Death: 105,631
  • Turkey 4,955,594
    Turkey
    Confirmed: 4,955,594
    Active: 324,210
    Recovered: 4,589,501
    Death: 41,883
  • Russia 4,847,489
    Russia
    Confirmed: 4,847,489
    Active: 271,044
    Recovered: 4,464,550
    Death: 111,895
  • UK 4,425,940
    UK
    Confirmed: 4,425,940
    Active: 60,457
    Recovered: 4,237,913
    Death: 127,570
  • Italy 4,070,400
    Italy
    Confirmed: 4,070,400
    Active: 407,129
    Recovered: 3,541,266
    Death: 122,005
  • Spain 3,551,262
    Spain
    Confirmed: 3,551,262
    Active: 239,770
    Recovered: 3,232,926
    Death: 78,566
  • Germany 3,469,448
    Germany
    Confirmed: 3,469,448
    Active: 300,155
    Recovered: 3,084,700
    Death: 84,593
  • Argentina 3,071,496
    Argentina
    Confirmed: 3,071,496
    Active: 271,166
    Recovered: 2,734,465
    Death: 65,865
  • Iran 2,591,609
    Iran
    Confirmed: 2,591,609
    Active: 478,614
    Recovered: 2,039,427
    Death: 73,568
  • Mexico 2,352,964
    Mexico
    Confirmed: 2,352,964
    Active: 260,013
    Recovered: 1,875,211
    Death: 217,740
  • Ukraine 2,090,986
    Ukraine
    Confirmed: 2,090,986
    Active: 348,551
    Recovered: 1,697,358
    Death: 45,077
  • Peru 1,818,689
    Peru
    Confirmed: 1,818,689
    Active: 67,924
    Recovered: 1,688,091
    Death: 62,674
  • Indonesia 1,691,658
    Indonesia
    Confirmed: 1,691,658
    Active: 98,217
    Recovered: 1,547,092
    Death: 46,349
  • South Africa 1,588,221
    South Africa
    Confirmed: 1,588,221
    Active: 23,279
    Recovered: 1,510,385
    Death: 54,557
  • Netherlands 1,531,800
    Netherlands
    Confirmed: 1,531,800
    Active: 224,310
    Recovered: 1,290,245
    Death: 17,245
  • Canada 1,257,328
    Canada
    Confirmed: 1,257,328
    Active: 81,671
    Recovered: 1,151,207
    Death: 24,450
  • Chile 1,222,949
    Chile
    Confirmed: 1,222,949
    Active: 35,278
    Recovered: 1,160,945
    Death: 26,726
  • Belgium 999,627
    Belgium
    Confirmed: 999,627
    Active: 98,586
    Recovered: 876,674
    Death: 24,367
  • Sweden 995,595
    Sweden
    Confirmed: 995,595
    Active: 160,613
    Recovered: 820,831
    Death: 14,151
  • Pakistan 841,636
    Pakistan
    Confirmed: 841,636
    Active: 84,480
    Recovered: 738,727
    Death: 18,429
  • Bangladesh 767,338
    Bangladesh
    Confirmed: 767,338
    Active: 57,118
    Recovered: 698,465
    Death: 11,755
  • Switzerland 667,380
    Switzerland
    Confirmed: 667,380
    Active: 61,931
    Recovered: 594,764
    Death: 10,685
  • Saudi Arabia 422,316
    Saudi Arabia
    Confirmed: 422,316
    Active: 9,691
    Recovered: 405,607
    Death: 7,018
  • Dominican Republic 268,561
    Dominican Republic
    Confirmed: 268,561
    Active: 35,599
    Recovered: 229,453
    Death: 3,509
  • Qatar 208,877
    Qatar
    Confirmed: 208,877
    Active: 11,482
    Recovered: 196,906
    Death: 489
  • Nigeria 165,273
    Nigeria
    Confirmed: 165,273
    Active: 7,805
    Recovered: 155,403
    Death: 2,065
  • China 90,721
    China
    Confirmed: 90,721
    Active: 319
    Recovered: 85,766
    Death: 4,636
  • Singapore 61,268
    Singapore
    Confirmed: 61,268
    Active: 393
    Recovered: 60,844
    Death: 31
  • Australia 29,862
    Australia
    Confirmed: 29,862
    Active: 257
    Recovered: 28,695
    Death: 910

😷 Global Stats

155,813,264 Total Cases
3,254,877 Deaths
133,957,390 Recovered
18,600,997 Active Cases
2.1% Death %
86.0% Recovered %
States cases Confirmed cases Recovered cases Death cases
California 3751458 1998467 62072
Texas 2911415 2773045 50655
Florida 2253929 1824257 35492
New York 2109831 1529270 52820
Illinois 1346398 1224215 24443
Pennsylvania 1168595 1036152 26495
Georgia 1105855 929936 20273
Ohio 1078734 1028478 19344
New Jersey 1004525 793019 25707
North Carolina 976768 938740 12721
Michigan 951899 660124 19100
Arizona 866022 828875 17360
Tennessee 850885 827542 12228
Indiana 725353 688391 13373
Massachusetts 693608 654650 17658
Virginia 663538 54882 10844
Wisconsin 600936 585179 6863
Missouri 588131 523724 9387
Minnesota 582576 562376 7269
South Carolina 581835 572299 9536
Alabama 529446 338587 10930
Colorado 517851 394973 6478
Louisiana 460803 450385 10418
Maryland 450689 10255 8813
Oklahoma 449266 432005 6788
Kentucky 446929 51666 6542
Washington 412237 201472 5593
Utah 398979 388654 2219
Iowa 396387 349645 5962
Connecticut 341571 304371 8124
Arkansas 336760 328798 5754
Nevada 317088 294568 5487
Mississippi 312712 301872 7223
Kansas 310115 298180 5000
Nebraska 220720 218475 2245
New Mexico 198781 183949 4085
Idaho 188435 108133 2052
Oregon 188417 159071 2509
West Virginia 154956 145050 2707
Rhode Island 149197 8974 2682
South Dakota 123073 119712 1976
Montana 109455 106808 1578
North Dakota 108081 105594 1497
Delaware 105401 95416 1628
New Hampshire 95881 92759 1308
Alaska 65908 57034 342
Maine 62857 62066 791
Wyoming 58438 57198 710
District Of Columbia 48041 33988 1109
Hawaii 32794 32309 485
Vermont 23247 20860 248
Puerto Rico 251751 110041 2337
Guam 8016 7779 138
United States Virgin Islands 3178 3076 27
Northern Mariana Islands 168 166 2
American Samoa 4 3 0
US Military 289286 275071 347
Veteran Affairs 256107 240522 11833
Federal Prisons 54942 53035 238
Navajo Nation 30543 16606 1282
Grand Princess Ship 122 115 7
Wuhan Repatriated 3 3 0
Diamond Princess Ship 46 46 0
total 33,320,972 26,022,594 593,134
Country Confirmed Recovered Death
United States 33,320,840
45725
26,022,472
56083
593,134
729
India 21,070,852
412618
17,269,076
330676
230,151
3982
Brazil 14,936,464
75652
13,529,572
86576
414,645
2791
France 5,706,378
26000
4,729,418
12088
105,631
244
Turkey 4,955,594
26476
4,589,501
35464
41,883
356
Russian Federation 4,847,489
7975
4,464,550
7506
111,895
360
United Kingdom 4,425,940
2144
4,237,913
3141
127,570
27
Italy 4,070,400
10585
3,541,266
17072
122,005
267
Spain 3,551,262
6317
3,232,926
10229
78,566
167
Germany 3,469,448
21266
3,084,700
23200
84,593
308
Worldwide 155,813,264
834378
133,957,390
784272
3,254,877
14156
06 May 2021, 1:00 AM (GMT)

COVID-19 GLOBAL STATISTICS

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Country Confirmed cases Death cases Recovered cases

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Questions & Answers

The most relevant questions about the disease COVID-19 caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus.

MEDICAL INFORMATION

What symptoms does a COVID-19 infection present?

Coronavirus can make anyone sick regardless of their age, sex, race or ethnicity. 

The virus can cause mild, flu-like symptoms such as:

  • Fever
  • Dry cough
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Muscular pain
  • Tiredness
  • Pneumonia in both lungs

With or without the emergency warning signs including:

  • Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath
  • Persistent pain or pressure in the chest
  • New confusion or inability to arouse
  • Blueish lips or face

In addition to cough, fever and shortness of breath, there may be nonspecific symptoms such as sore throat, myalgia, fatigue, nausea, and diarrhea as initial symptoms in some cases.

What treatments are there for the COVID-19 disease?

Healthcare providers are focused on treating clinical symptoms, including difficulty breathing, fever, cough, tiredness, and muscle pain. As the severity of the disease intensifies, implementing therapy for oxygenation, as well as other protocols for supportive care can be of high efficiency.

When to test for COVID-19?

Your current location will address the outbreak differently, depending on its stage at the epidemiological curves and will provide different options both for testing and for other medical attention services. Circumstances will pave way for nations differently as testing and healthcare protocols are adapted to local capacities and needs.

According to the ECDC, "national authorities may decide to only test subgroups of suspected cases based on the national capacity to test, the availability of necessary equipment for testing, the level of community transmission of COVID-19, or any other criteria. As a rational approach, national authorities may consider prioritising testing in the following groups:

  • hospitalised patients with severe respiratory infections;
  • cases with acute respiratory infections in hospital or long-term care facilities;
  • patients with acute respiratory infections or influenza-like illness in certain outpatient clinics or hospitals in order to assess the extent of virus circulation in the population;
  • elderly people with underlying chronic medical conditions such as lung disease, cancer, heart failure, cerebrovascular disease, renal disease, liver disease, diabetes, and immunocompromising conditions"

Where can someone get tested for COVID-19?

In case you find yourself presenting symptoms of COVID-19, do not hesitate to contact you local healthcare services by email, chat or by telephone. Further medical testing may be conducted if your healthcare provider finds a reason to and will guide you on the procedure of attention.


Who is more at risk?

Elders and people with other current medical conditions such as cancer, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, and hypertension, for example, are at a greater risks of presenting severe symptoms.

What is the risk for children?

Evidence of COVID-19 in children have been documented to be mild and rare, as a Chinese study explains, where only 2% of the cases were under 18 years of age. The study addresses the fact that fewer than 3% of the people in the same study developed severe or critical disease.

What is the risk for women during pregnancy?

There is no evidence that the foetus carried by a pregnant woman infected with COVID-19 would be affected, meaning that the mother would not transmit the virus to the baby. Additionally, there are no evident differences suggesting pregnancy will increase the severity of the disease.

WAMS INFOGRAPHIC ON COVID-19

This infographic provides basic information on novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), how it spreads, symptoms, how to avoid catching or spreading the virus, and other useful details.




PREVENTION

You can help stop COVID-19 by knowing the signs and symptoms:

Seek medical advice if you have fever, cough or shortness of breath after having been in close contact with a person known to have COVID-19 or if you live in or have recently been in an area with ongoing spread of COVID-19.

What to do to prevent getting infected by COVID-19?

Simple things you can do to help keep yourself and others healthy:

  • Wash your hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds or use with alcohol-based solutions, gels or tissues.
  • Hand wash should be done perforce after blowing your nose, coughing, or sneezing, after going to the bathroom and before eating or preparing food.
  • Avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth with unwashed hands.
  • Stay home when you are sick and remain at least a metre away from others infected.
  • Cover your cough or sneeze with a tissue, then throw the tissue in the trash.

What to do if you have been in close contact with people that have COVID-19?

People who have been in close contact with a person known to have COVID-19 or people who live in or have recently been in an area with ongoing spread are at an increased risk of exposure. Notify public health authorities in your location to be able to receive proper attention and directions on how to proceed best.

If you develop any symptoms, you should immediately call your healthcare provider for advice, mentioning that you have been in contact with someone with COVID-19.




MYTH BUSTERS

What can face masks do to protect against COVID-19?

If you are infected, the use of surgical face masks may reduce the risk of you infecting other people, but there is no evidence that face masks will effectively prevent you from being infected with the virus. In fact, it is possible that the use of face masks may even increase the risk of infection due to a false sense of security and increased contact between hands, mouth and eyes.

What efforts are being done to develop a vaccine?

There are currently no vaccines against human coronaviruses, including the virus that causes COVID-19. This is why it is very important to prevent infection and to contain further spread of the virus. The United States FDA is working with vaccine developers and other researchers and manufacturers to help expedite the development and availability of medical products such as vaccines, antibodies, and drugs to prevent COVID-19.

The development of vaccines takes time. Several pharmaceutical companies are working on vaccine candidates. It will, however, take months or years before any vaccine can be widely used, as it needs to undergo extensive testing to determine its safety and efficacy.

What protection does the influenza vaccine have against COVID-19?

Influenza and the virus that causes COVID-19 are two very different viruses and the seasonal influenza vaccine will not protect against COVID-19.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

SAFETY MEASURES WHEN TRAVELLING

 

What precautions should I take if I am visiting an area of local or community transmission?

Travellers visiting areas of local or community COVID-19 transmission should adhere to strict hygiene measures, wash hands with soap and water regularly, and/or use alcohol-based hand sanitisers. Touching the face with unwashed hands should be avoided. Travellers should avoid contact with sick persons, in particular those with respiratory symptoms and fever. It should be emphasised that older people and those with underlying health conditions should take these precautionary measures very seriously.

What if I have recently been in an area of local or community transmission?

Travellers returning from areas of local or community transmission should monitor their health for 14 days. People with symptoms should contact their healthcare specialist via telephone first, and indicate their exposure and travel history before seeking medical attention in person. Symptomatic people should avoid contact with others until they have received advice from a healthcare specialist.

WHO: Coronavirus disease (COVID-2019) situation reports

 

What is the risk of infection when travelling by plane?

If it is established that a COVID-19 case has been on an airplane, other passengers who were at risk (as defined by how near they were seated to the infected passenger) will be contacted by public health authorities. Should you have questions about a flight you have taken, please contact your local health authority for advice. The risk of being infected on an airplane cannot be excluded, but is currently considered to be low for an individual traveller. The risk of being infected in an airport is similar to that of any other place where many people gather.

Why are people not being checked for COVID-19 at the airport when arriving from areas of local or community transmission?

There is evidence that checking people at the airport (known as entry screening) is not very effective in preventing the spread of the virus, especially when people do not have symptoms. It is generally considered more useful to provide those arriving at airports with clear information explaining what to do if they develop symptoms after arrival.

Where can I learn more?

Each EU/EEA country may issue specific advice to travellers to areas with local or community transmission of COVID-19. Consult your local health authority or the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to get advice tailored for residents in your setting.

For an updated list of areas of presumed community transmission, please refer to WHO situation reports for country classification.

WHO: Coronavirus disease (COVID-2019) situation reports

COVID-19 AND ANIMALS & FOOD PRODUCTS

What is the risk of COVID-19 infection from animals or animal products imported from affected areas?

There is no evidence that any of the animals or animal products authorised for entry into the European Union pose a risk to the health of EU citizens as a result of the presence of COVID-19.

What is the risk of COVID-19 infection from food products imported from affected areas?

There has been no report of transmission of COVID-19 via food and therefore there is no evidence that food items imported into the European Union in accordance with the applicable animal and public health regulations pose a risk for the health of EU citizens in relation to COVID-19. The main mode of transmission is from person to person.

What is the risk of COVID-19 infection from contact with pets and other animals in the EU?

Current research links COVID-19 to certain types of bat as the original source, but does not exclude the involvement of other animals. Several types of coronaviruses can infect animals and can be transmitted to other animals and people. There is evidence that companion animals (e.g. dogs or cats) have a risk of infection when in close contact with COVID-19 infected humans. As a general precaution, it is always wise to observe basic principles of hygiene when in contact with animals.




National information resources for the public on COVID-19

EUROPE:

 

Country Institute  Website National helplines
Austria Federal Ministry Republic of Austria: Social Affairs, Health, Care and Consumer Protection Federal sozialministerium.at +43 800 555 621
Belgium Federal Public Service: Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment info-coronavirus.be +32 800 14689
Bulgaria Ministry of Health mh.government.bg +359 2 807 87 57
Croatia Croatian Institute of Public Health hzjz.hr +385 91 468 30 32;  +385 99 468 30 01
Cyprus Ministry of Health moh.gov.cy +357 1420
Czech Republic Ministry of Health mzcr.cz +420 724 810 106; +420 725 191 367
Denmark Danish Health Authority sst.dk +45 72 22 74 59
Estonia Ministry of Social Affairs koroonaviirus.ee +372 634 6630; +372 634 1220
Finland Finnish institute for health and welfare thl.fi +358 295 535 535
France Government of the French Republic gouvernement.fr +33 800 130 000
Germany Federal Ministry of Health bundesgesundheitsministerium.de +49 30 346 465 100
Greece National Public Health Institute of Greece eody.gov.gr/ +30 210 521 2054
Hungary Hungarian Government koronavirus.gov.hu +36 6 80 277 455; +36 6 80 277 456
Iceland Directorate of Health landlaeknir.is +354 544 4113, 1700
Ireland Health Service Executive hse.ie +353 1850 24 1850
Italy Ministry of Health salute.gov.it +39 1500
Latvia Centre for the Prevention and Control of Diseases spkc.gov.lv +371 67387661
Liechtenstein Government of Liechtenstein regierung.li/coronavirus +423 230 30 30
Lithuania Ministry of Health sam.lrv.lt +370 8 618 79984
Luxembourg Ministry of Health msan.gouvernement.lu +352 8002 8080
Malta Government of Malta deputyprimeminister.gov.mt +356 21324086
Netherlands National Institute for Public Health and the Environment rivm.nl +31 800-1351
Norway Norwegian Institute of Public Health fhi.no +47 815 55 015
Poland Government of Poland gov.pl +48 800 190 590
Portugal Ministry of Health dgs.pt/corona-virus +351 808 24 24 24
Romania Ministry of Health ms.ro +40 800 800 358
Slovakia Public Health Authority of the Slovak Republic uvzsr.sk +421 917 222 682
Slovenia Government of Slovenia gov.si +386 31 646 617; 080 1404*
Spain Government of Spain mscbs.gob.es Regional numbers are found here
Sweden Public Health Agency of Sweden folkhalsomyndigheten.se +46 113 13
Switzerland Federal Office of Public Health bag.admin.ch/novel-cov +41 58 463 00 00
UK Government of UK gov.uk 111 (dialled from UK)

References

  1. Wuhan City Health Committee (WCHC). Wuhan Municipal Health and Health Commission's briefing on the current pneumonia epidemic situation in our city 2019 [updated 31 December 2019, 14 January 2020].
  2. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Risk assessment: Outbreak of acute respiratory syndrome associated with a novel coronavirus, Wuhan, China; first update 2020 [updated 22 January 2020]. Stockholm: ECDC; 2020.
  3. Xinhuanet. Experts claim that a new coronavirus is identified in Wuhan 2020 [14 January 2020].
  4. Holmes E. Initial genome release of novel coronavirus 2020 [14 January 2020]. Available from: http://virological.org/t/initial-genome-release-of-novel-coronavirus/319.
  5. World Health Organization. Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) SITUATION REPORT – 1, 20 January 2020. Geneva: WHO; 2020.
  6. Du Z, Wang L, Chauchemez S, Xu X, Wang X, Cowling BJ, et al. Risk for transportation of 2019 novel coronavirus disease from Wuhan to other cities in China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020 May.
  7. Santé publique France. Epidémie de coronavirus Covid-19 au départ de Wuhan, Chine. Paris: Santé publique France; 2020. [Cited on 14 February 2020].
  8. Bayerisches Staatsministerium für Gesundheit und Pflege. Bestätigter Coronavirus - Fall in Bayern – Infektionsschutzmaßnahmen laufen. Munich: BSfGuP; 2020.
  9. World Health Organization. Statement on the second meeting of the International Health Regulations (2005) Emergency Committee regarding the outbreak of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). Geneva: WHO; 2020.
  10. Phelan A, Katz R, Gostin L. The novel coronavirus originating in Wuhan, China: challenges for global health governance. JAMA. 2020;323(8):709-710. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.1097.
  11. Chinazzi M, Davis JT, Ajelli M, Gioanni C, Litvinova M, et al. The effect of travel restrictions on the spread of the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) outbreak. medRxiv pre-print.
  12. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Situation update, 3 March 2020. Stockholm: ECDC; 2020.
  13. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Outbreak of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID19): situation in Italy – 23 February 2020. ECDC: Stockholm; 2020.

 

 

 

 

 

 

WAMS’ COVID-19 PATIENT MANAGEMENT PROTOCOL

WAMS, the World Academy of Medical Sciences, as the sole official world institution of medical sciences of its kind, puts its principal aim on the task of clearly informing the public and medical audience about the infamous coronavirus COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic and its impact on global human health through its COVID-19 program and through its free digital publication "WAMS' COVID-19 Patient Management Protocol". It brings notice to the characteristics of the phenomenon in various aspects of primordial relevance as an international emergency. This task is being shared among the members of the Academy and its scientific partners across the world with a united spirit of cooperation and dedication to the adequate dissemination of information regarding COVID-19's historical background, geographical distribution, risk assessment, personal health guide, containment & prevention measures, as well as recommendations for public and private sectors to follow.

WAMS Coronavirus Safety Committee

Our dedicated members addressing the pandemic situation.

ilievasiliev2

Dr. Ilie Vasiliev, MD

First Senior Vice President
valerishev

Dr. Valeri Shevchenko, MD

Chairman of the WAMS International Board of Biotechnology/Medical Technology
ettore

Dr. Ettore Piero Valente, MD

Chairman of the WAMS European Division
azfar

Dr. M. Azfar, MS, FRCSEd, FACS

Chairman of the WAMS Middle-East and North African Division
ira2

Ira S. Pastor

Chief Global Officer
joeltraje

Dr. Joel I. Osorio, MD

Chairman of the WAMS Americas Division
alexdelaparra

Alejandro De La Parra Solomon

Former Member of the WAMS Executive Council
walternbini
michaelcoroneos

Dr. Michael Coroneos, FRCS, FACS

Chairman of the Education and Training Board
sergei3

Dr. Sergei Paylian, MD

Member of the WAMS Executive Council
kuohui

Dr. Kuo-Hui Su, MD

Chairman WAMS International Medical Research Council
larisaspinel

Dr. Larisa Spinei, MD, PhD

Chairwoman of the WAMS International Board of Biostatistics
gerardo

Dr. Gerardo Jiménez Sánchez, MD, PhD

Chairman of the WAMS Genomic Medicine Division
constantiniavorschi

Dr. Constantin Iavorschi MD, PhD

Chairman of the WAMS International Board of Pulmonary Medicine
elenatudor

Dr. Elena Tudor, MD, PhD

Chairwoman of the WAMS International Board of Tuberculosis
Osinakachi SQUARE white

Osinakachi Akuma Kalu

Chairman of the Council for the Youth Development of Nigeria
sergiumatcovschi

Dr. Sergiu Matcovschi, MD, PhD

Chairman of the WAMS International Board of Internal Medicine
vladimirvartanov

Dr. Vladimir Vartanov, MD, PhD

Chairman of the WAMS International Board of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care
shanin

Dr. Shahin Gavanji, MD

Chairman of the Asian Council
Jaspal

Dr. Chandanpreet Singh Jaspal, DDS, BDS

Chairman of the WAMS Dentistry Division
azizollah

Dr. Azizollah Bakhtari, MD

Chairman of the WAMS Council of Iran
douglas

Dr. Douglas Colina, MD

Chairman of the WAMS Venezuelan Council
emad

Dr. Emad Fahim, MBBS

Fellow of the Academy
fengchiho

Dr. Feng-Chi (Frank) Ho, PhD

Chairman of the WAMS Singaporean Council
drfeliciatshite

Dr. Felicia Tshite, MD, BSc, MBChB

Chairwoman of the WAMS South African Council
drfares

Dr. Youssef Fares, MD, PhD, FACS, FICS

Chairman, WAMS National Council of Lebanon
ismailburud

Dr. Ismail Burud, MD

Chairman of the WAMS Malaysian Council
2b5c9aa

Dr. M. Luisetto, MD

Chairman of the Italian Council
ricardoge

Dr. Ricardo Ge Martins, MD

Chairman of the WAMS Brazilian Council
alpha

Dr. Alpha I. Balde, MD, MS

Chairman of the WAMS Chinese Council
MirtaDAmbra

Dr. Teresa Mirta D’Ambra, MD

Chairwoman of the WAMS Argentinian Council
Lejla S

Dr. Lejla Stojanovic, MD

Chairwoman of the WAMS Council of Serbia
ericklien

Eric Klien

Honorary Member of the Academy Faculty
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