Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) & COVID-19

A dedicated space to inform the public about coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) and the COVID-19 disease, curated by dedicated members of the Academy.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Coronavirus Background

Historical reference to coronavirus COVID-19 and its presence in the world.

INTRODUCTION

On December 2019, the first acute respiratory syndrome case reports appeared at the Chinese Wuhan municipality, leading to authorities to classify it as a new coronavirus that had not been associated with humans before. As the disease outbreak has quickly spread across China, without the exact source having been detected, has transmitted to a variety of nations in Asian, European, Australian, African, and North American regions, with expected extension to the entire planet.

The novel coronavirus strain and the disease caused by it received an official name on 12 February 2020, becoming the second strain of SARS and labeled as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and the disease was referred to as COVID-19. This novel strain of coronavirus, with a confirmed human-to-human transmission, has become a primary concern for public health as there is minimal understanding about its mechanisms of action, its criticality, and possible treatment solutions.

As international health organizations keep close monitoring of the situation and attending to the risks involved, our Academy is honorably dedicated to addressing the event with its expert fellows members as an activity of primordial priority.


 

RISK ASSESSMENT

Source: ECDC

The main developments since the 2 March 2020 risk assessment can be summarised as follows:

  • The 14-day cumulative notification rate of COVID-19, a measure of the prevalence of active cases in the population, is 3.28 per 100 000 population in the EU/EEA as of 11 March, ranging from low rates of <0.1 to 16.3 per 100 000 in Italy and 19.8 per 100 000 in Iceland. The 14-days notification rate increased 10-fold over the last 10 days and, assuming no effect of mitigation measures, the EU/EEA and UK is predicted to reach 100 per 100 000 population (the Hubei scenario) by the end of March.
  • While early in the outbreak most cases were reported in China, currently the majority of cases reported are from outside China; and since 2 March, 51% of the cases reported were from EU/EEA countries and the UK.
  • There are increasing reports both globally and in the EU/EEA that local transmission has occurred extensively in multiple locations, without reported travel history to areas reporting community transmission and without epidemiological links to known cases [5-8].
  • As of 11 March 2020, among the 1 597 cases reported in TESSy where the place of infection was reported, 797 (50%) were reported to be infected in the reporting country, 698 (44%) were reported to have acquired infection in another European country and 102 (6%) had acquired infection outside the EU/EEA.
  • In the EU/EEA and the UK, events and locations that involve social interaction or institutional contact have been related to the development of COVID-19 clusters, including workplace interactions, religious events, festivities, health and social care settings, and travel.
  • Transmission events have been reported in hospitals, with COVID-19 cases identified among healthcare workers and patients [9,10] as well as in long-term care facilities. As of 9 March, an ongoing outbreak of COVID-19 at a long-term care facility (LTCF) with 120 residents in Washington State (United States) has had 54 residents transferred to local hospitals and 26 deaths, of which 11 were within the facility. Of the 15 that died in hospital, 13 had tested positive for COVID-19. Additionally, 70 of 180 LTCF employees reported symptoms compatible with COVID-19 [11]. In a LTCF in Île-de-France region, France, as of 10 March, authorities report an outbreak of five cases among residents, including two deaths [12].
  • Reports from some healthcare facilities in northern Italy indicate that intensive care capacity has been exceeded due to the high volume of patients requiring ventilation [13].
  • The Director General of the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a global pandemic on 11 March 2020.

CHRONOLOGY

Source: ECDC

  • On 31 December 2019, the Wuhan Municipal Health Commission in Wuhan City, Hubei province, China, reported a cluster of 27 pneumonia cases (including seven severe cases) of unknown aetiology, with a common reported link to Wuhan's Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market, a wholesale fish and live animal market [1].
  • The market was closed down on 1 January 2020. According to the Wuhan Municipal Health Commission, samples from the market tested positive for novel coronavirus. Cases showed symptoms such as fever, dry cough, dyspnoea; radiological findings showed bilateral lung infiltrates [2].
  • On 9 January 2020, the China CDC reported that a novel coronavirus (later named SARS-CoV-2, the virus causing COVID-19) had been detected as the causative agent for 15 of the 59 cases of pneumonia [3]. On 10 January 2020, the first novel coronavirus genome sequence was made publicly available [4]. The sequence was deposited in the GenBank database (accession number MN908947) and uploaded to the Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data (GISAID). A preliminary analysis showed that the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) clusters with the SARS-related CoV clade and differs from the core genome of known bat CoVs.
  • By 20 January 2020, there were reports of confirmed cases from three countries outside China: Thailand, Japan and South Korea [5]. These cases had all been exported from China.
  • On 23 January 2020, Wuhan City was locked down – with all travel in and out of Wuhan prohibited – and movement inside the city was restricted [6].
  • China changed the case definition several times during the course of the outbreak, which caused uncertainty regarding the exact number of cases and the extent of the spread of the virus, and several EU/EEA countries have modified their testing strategies during the course of the outbreak to test only symptomatic or severe cases.
  • The first European case was reported from France on 24 January 2020. This case had a travel history to China [7]. In Germany, cases were reported on 28 January, related to a person visiting from China [8].
  • On 30 January 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared this first outbreak of novel coronavirus a ‘public health emergency of international concern’ [9]. During the following weeks, several countries implemented entry screening measures for arriving passengers from China [10]. Soon, several major airlines suspended their flights from and to China [11]. Several countries repatriated citizens living in Wuhan.
  • A large number of cases have been diagnosed on board the Diamond Princess, a cruise ship docked in the port of Yokohama, Japan. The first cases were reported on 4 February 2020; the ship was put in quarantine.
  • As of 3 March 2020, 705 cases have been identified among the ship’s passengers.  Of these cases, six died. [12]
  • On 22 February, the Italian authorities reported clusters of cases in Lombardy and additional cases from two other regions, Piedmont and Veneto. Over the following days, cases were reported from several other regions. Transmission appears to have occurred locally, in contrast to first-generation transmission from people returning from affected areas. Transmission events were also reported from hospitals, with COVID-19 cases identified among healthcare workers and patients [13]. During the following week, several European countries reported cases of COVID-19 in travellers from the affected areas in Italy, as well as cases without epidemiological links to Italy, China or other countries with ongoing transmission [13]

Since ECDC’s fifth update on novel coronavirus published on 2 March 2020,  the number of cases and deaths reported in the EU/EEA has been rising, mirroring the trends seen in China in January-early February and in northern Italy in late February. If this trend continues, based on the quick pace of growth of the epidemic observed in China and northern Italy, it is likely that similar situations may be seen in other EU/EEA Member States.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Geographic distribution of COVID-19

Learn about which locations are affected and view graphical representations of epidemiological curves.

Live Updates COVID-19 CASES
  • World 62,101,294
    World
    Confirmed: 62,101,294
    Active: 17,758,877
    Recovered: 42,890,825
    Death: 1,451,592
  • USA 13,454,346
    USA
    Confirmed: 13,454,346
    Active: 5,237,732
    Recovered: 7,945,585
    Death: 271,029
  • India 9,351,224
    India
    Confirmed: 9,351,224
    Active: 455,017
    Recovered: 8,759,969
    Death: 136,238
  • Brazil 6,238,350
    Brazil
    Confirmed: 6,238,350
    Active: 529,828
    Recovered: 5,536,524
    Death: 171,998
  • Russia 2,242,633
    Russia
    Confirmed: 2,242,633
    Active: 464,095
    Recovered: 1,739,470
    Death: 39,068
  • France 2,196,119
    France
    Confirmed: 2,196,119
    Active: 1,984,290
    Recovered: 159,915
    Death: 51,914
  • Spain 1,646,192
    Spain
    Confirmed: 1,646,192
    Active: 1,601,524
    Recovered: ?
    Death: 44,668
  • UK 1,589,301
    UK
    Confirmed: 1,589,301
    Active: 1,531,750
    Recovered: ?
    Death: 57,551
  • Italy 1,538,217
    Italy
    Confirmed: 1,538,217
    Active: 787,893
    Recovered: 696,647
    Death: 53,677
  • Argentina 1,407,277
    Argentina
    Confirmed: 1,407,277
    Active: 133,804
    Recovered: 1,235,257
    Death: 38,216
  • Mexico 1,090,675
    Mexico
    Confirmed: 1,090,675
    Active: 182,221
    Recovered: 803,581
    Death: 104,873
  • Germany 1,027,325
    Germany
    Confirmed: 1,027,325
    Active: 315,053
    Recovered: 696,100
    Death: 16,172
  • Peru 958,324
    Peru
    Confirmed: 958,324
    Active: 33,670
    Recovered: 888,815
    Death: 35,839
  • Iran 935,799
    Iran
    Confirmed: 935,799
    Active: 239,482
    Recovered: 648,831
    Death: 47,486
  • South Africa 781,941
    South Africa
    Confirmed: 781,941
    Active: 37,687
    Recovered: 722,876
    Death: 21,378
  • Ukraine 709,701
    Ukraine
    Confirmed: 709,701
    Active: 362,473
    Recovered: 335,135
    Death: 12,093
  • Belgium 570,829
    Belgium
    Confirmed: 570,829
    Active: 517,252
    Recovered: 37,238
    Death: 16,339
  • Turkey 548,244
    Turkey
    Confirmed: 548,244
    Active: 142,437
    Recovered: 392,616
    Death: 13,191
  • Chile 547,223
    Chile
    Confirmed: 547,223
    Active: 9,686
    Recovered: 522,259
    Death: 15,278
  • Indonesia 527,999
    Indonesia
    Confirmed: 527,999
    Active: 69,370
    Recovered: 441,983
    Death: 16,646
  • Netherlands 508,866
    Netherlands
    Confirmed: 508,866
    Active: 499,599
    Recovered: ?
    Death: 9,267
  • Bangladesh 460,619
    Bangladesh
    Confirmed: 460,619
    Active: 78,154
    Recovered: 375,885
    Death: 6,580
  • Pakistan 392,356
    Pakistan
    Confirmed: 392,356
    Active: 46,861
    Recovered: 337,553
    Death: 7,942
  • Canada 359,064
    Canada
    Confirmed: 359,064
    Active: 60,666
    Recovered: 286,504
    Death: 11,894
  • Saudi Arabia 356,691
    Saudi Arabia
    Confirmed: 356,691
    Active: 5,212
    Recovered: 345,622
    Death: 5,857
  • Switzerland 318,290
    Switzerland
    Confirmed: 318,290
    Active: 91,619
    Recovered: 222,100
    Death: 4,571
  • Sweden 243,129
    Sweden
    Confirmed: 243,129
    Active: 236,448
    Recovered: ?
    Death: 6,681
  • Dominican Republic 141,777
    Dominican Republic
    Confirmed: 141,777
    Active: 25,636
    Recovered: 113,817
    Death: 2,324
  • Qatar 138,477
    Qatar
    Confirmed: 138,477
    Active: 2,589
    Recovered: 135,651
    Death: 237
  • China 86,501
    China
    Confirmed: 86,501
    Active: 285
    Recovered: 81,582
    Death: 4,634
  • Nigeria 67,220
    Nigeria
    Confirmed: 67,220
    Active: 3,363
    Recovered: 62,686
    Death: 1,171
  • Singapore 58,205
    Singapore
    Confirmed: 58,205
    Active: 66
    Recovered: 58,111
    Death: 28
  • Australia 27,885
    Australia
    Confirmed: 27,885
    Active: 1,393
    Recovered: 25,585
    Death: 907

😷 Global Stats

62,101,294 Total Cases
1,451,592 Deaths
42,890,825 Recovered
17,758,877 Active Cases
2.3% Death %
69.1% Recovered %
States cases Confirmed cases Recovered cases Death cases
Texas 1235838 976808 21834
California 1190665 560153 19099
Florida 979020 649316 18363
Illinois 705063 364639 12686
New York 666642 440567 34437
Georgia 464526 292678 9380
Ohio 399808 254775 6346
Wisconsin 375837 301541 3257
Michigan 369801 152267 9357
Tennessee 356716 318523 4526
North Carolina 354514 293555 5210
Pennsylvania 349360 209604 10318
New Jersey 333766 194881 17078
Indiana 324537 187259 5594
Arizona 318638 50892 6588
Missouri 303186 80333 4033
Minnesota 295001 244982 3535
Alabama 242874 161946 3572
Louisiana 230602 192488 6391
Virginia 230444 23858 4044
Iowa 224258 127348 2352
Colorado 220953 55053 2977
Massachusetts 219252 166765 10635
South Carolina 213120 112233 4346
Maryland 192858 8569 4569
Utah 190044 126690 849
Oklahoma 187567 152969 1704
Kentucky 171755 27866 1871
Washington 164331 65053 2723
Arkansas 153677 134312 2436
Kansas 153021 90539 1529
Mississippi 148387 121637 3769
Nevada 146317 82089 2095
Nebraska 122952 60654 982
Connecticut 112581 47537 4961
Idaho 98500 39900 909
New Mexico 91852 31102 1504
South Dakota 78280 61010 888
North Dakota 77232 68105 902
Oregon 70832 69947 885
Montana 59796 43291 658
Rhode Island 53954 3619 1346
West Virginia 45046 29008 712
Delaware 34170 16874 763
Wyoming 31773 21700 215
Alaska 29554 29436 118
District Of Columbia 20937 15476 677
New Hampshire 19313 14226 517
Hawaii 17708 12684 240
Maine 11265 8800 190
Vermont 4005 2439 67
Puerto Rico 90705 41768 1076
Guam 6768 5521 112
United States Virgin Islands 1538 1453 23
Northern Mariana Islands 104 29 2
American Samoa 3 0 0
US Military 110982 67165 124
Veteran Affairs 108343 87743 4857
Federal Prisons 27669 21618 147
Navajo Nation 15954 8609 648
Grand Princess Ship 103 0 3
Wuhan Repatriated 3 0 0
Diamond Princess Ship 46 0 0
total 13,454,346 7,945,585 271,029
Country Confirmed Recovered Death
United States 13,454,346
7,945,585
271,029
N/A
India 9,351,224
8,759,969
1083
136,238
N/A
Brazil 6,238,350
5,536,524
171,998
N/A
Russian Federation 2,242,633
27100
1,739,470
27296
39,068
510
France 2,196,119
159,915
51,914
N/A
Spain 1,646,192
N/A
44,668
N/A
United Kingdom 1,589,301
N/A
57,551
N/A
Italy 1,538,217
696,647
53,677
N/A
Argentina 1,407,277
1,235,257
38,216
N/A
Colombia 1,290,510
1,189,499
36,214
N/A
Worldwide 62,101,294
133568
42,890,825
105558
1,451,592
3299
28 Nov 2020, 11:24 AM (GMT)

COVID-19 GLOBAL STATISTICS

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Country Confirmed cases Death cases Recovered cases

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Questions & Answers

The most relevant questions about the disease COVID-19 caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus.

MEDICAL INFORMATION

What symptoms does a COVID-19 infection present?

Coronavirus can make anyone sick regardless of their age, sex, race or ethnicity. 

The virus can cause mild, flu-like symptoms such as:

  • Fever
  • Dry cough
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Muscular pain
  • Tiredness
  • Pneumonia in both lungs

With or without the emergency warning signs including:

  • Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath
  • Persistent pain or pressure in the chest
  • New confusion or inability to arouse
  • Blueish lips or face

In addition to cough, fever and shortness of breath, there may be nonspecific symptoms such as sore throat, myalgia, fatigue, nausea, and diarrhea as initial symptoms in some cases.

What treatments are there for the COVID-19 disease?

Healthcare providers are focused on treating clinical symptoms, including difficulty breathing, fever, cough, tiredness, and muscle pain. As the severity of the disease intensifies, implementing therapy for oxygenation, as well as other protocols for supportive care can be of high efficiency.

When to test for COVID-19?

Your current location will address the outbreak differently, depending on its stage at the epidemiological curves and will provide different options both for testing and for other medical attention services. Circumstances will pave way for nations differently as testing and healthcare protocols are adapted to local capacities and needs.

According to the ECDC, "national authorities may decide to only test subgroups of suspected cases based on the national capacity to test, the availability of necessary equipment for testing, the level of community transmission of COVID-19, or any other criteria. As a rational approach, national authorities may consider prioritising testing in the following groups:

  • hospitalised patients with severe respiratory infections;
  • cases with acute respiratory infections in hospital or long-term care facilities;
  • patients with acute respiratory infections or influenza-like illness in certain outpatient clinics or hospitals in order to assess the extent of virus circulation in the population;
  • elderly people with underlying chronic medical conditions such as lung disease, cancer, heart failure, cerebrovascular disease, renal disease, liver disease, diabetes, and immunocompromising conditions"

Where can someone get tested for COVID-19?

In case you find yourself presenting symptoms of COVID-19, do not hesitate to contact you local healthcare services by email, chat or by telephone. Further medical testing may be conducted if your healthcare provider finds a reason to and will guide you on the procedure of attention.


Who is more at risk?

Elders and people with other current medical conditions such as cancer, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, and hypertension, for example, are at a greater risks of presenting severe symptoms.

What is the risk for children?

Evidence of COVID-19 in children have been documented to be mild and rare, as a Chinese study explains, where only 2% of the cases were under 18 years of age. The study addresses the fact that fewer than 3% of the people in the same study developed severe or critical disease.

What is the risk for women during pregnancy?

There is no evidence that the foetus carried by a pregnant woman infected with COVID-19 would be affected, meaning that the mother would not transmit the virus to the baby. Additionally, there are no evident differences suggesting pregnancy will increase the severity of the disease.

WAMS INFOGRAPHIC ON COVID-19

This infographic provides basic information on novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), how it spreads, symptoms, how to avoid catching or spreading the virus, and other useful details.




PREVENTION

You can help stop COVID-19 by knowing the signs and symptoms:

Seek medical advice if you have fever, cough or shortness of breath after having been in close contact with a person known to have COVID-19 or if you live in or have recently been in an area with ongoing spread of COVID-19.

What to do to prevent getting infected by COVID-19?

Simple things you can do to help keep yourself and others healthy:

  • Wash your hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds or use with alcohol-based solutions, gels or tissues.
  • Hand wash should be done perforce after blowing your nose, coughing, or sneezing, after going to the bathroom and before eating or preparing food.
  • Avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth with unwashed hands.
  • Stay home when you are sick and remain at least a metre away from others infected.
  • Cover your cough or sneeze with a tissue, then throw the tissue in the trash.

What to do if you have been in close contact with people that have COVID-19?

People who have been in close contact with a person known to have COVID-19 or people who live in or have recently been in an area with ongoing spread are at an increased risk of exposure. Notify public health authorities in your location to be able to receive proper attention and directions on how to proceed best.

If you develop any symptoms, you should immediately call your healthcare provider for advice, mentioning that you have been in contact with someone with COVID-19.




MYTH BUSTERS

What can face masks do to protect against COVID-19?

If you are infected, the use of surgical face masks may reduce the risk of you infecting other people, but there is no evidence that face masks will effectively prevent you from being infected with the virus. In fact, it is possible that the use of face masks may even increase the risk of infection due to a false sense of security and increased contact between hands, mouth and eyes.

What efforts are being done to develop a vaccine?

There are currently no vaccines against human coronaviruses, including the virus that causes COVID-19. This is why it is very important to prevent infection and to contain further spread of the virus. The United States FDA is working with vaccine developers and other researchers and manufacturers to help expedite the development and availability of medical products such as vaccines, antibodies, and drugs to prevent COVID-19.

The development of vaccines takes time. Several pharmaceutical companies are working on vaccine candidates. It will, however, take months or years before any vaccine can be widely used, as it needs to undergo extensive testing to determine its safety and efficacy.

What protection does the influenza vaccine have against COVID-19?

Influenza and the virus that causes COVID-19 are two very different viruses and the seasonal influenza vaccine will not protect against COVID-19.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

SAFETY MEASURES WHEN TRAVELLING

 

What precautions should I take if I am visiting an area of local or community transmission?

Travellers visiting areas of local or community COVID-19 transmission should adhere to strict hygiene measures, wash hands with soap and water regularly, and/or use alcohol-based hand sanitisers. Touching the face with unwashed hands should be avoided. Travellers should avoid contact with sick persons, in particular those with respiratory symptoms and fever. It should be emphasised that older people and those with underlying health conditions should take these precautionary measures very seriously.

What if I have recently been in an area of local or community transmission?

Travellers returning from areas of local or community transmission should monitor their health for 14 days. People with symptoms should contact their healthcare specialist via telephone first, and indicate their exposure and travel history before seeking medical attention in person. Symptomatic people should avoid contact with others until they have received advice from a healthcare specialist.

WHO: Coronavirus disease (COVID-2019) situation reports

 

What is the risk of infection when travelling by plane?

If it is established that a COVID-19 case has been on an airplane, other passengers who were at risk (as defined by how near they were seated to the infected passenger) will be contacted by public health authorities. Should you have questions about a flight you have taken, please contact your local health authority for advice. The risk of being infected on an airplane cannot be excluded, but is currently considered to be low for an individual traveller. The risk of being infected in an airport is similar to that of any other place where many people gather.

Why are people not being checked for COVID-19 at the airport when arriving from areas of local or community transmission?

There is evidence that checking people at the airport (known as entry screening) is not very effective in preventing the spread of the virus, especially when people do not have symptoms. It is generally considered more useful to provide those arriving at airports with clear information explaining what to do if they develop symptoms after arrival.

Where can I learn more?

Each EU/EEA country may issue specific advice to travellers to areas with local or community transmission of COVID-19. Consult your local health authority or the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to get advice tailored for residents in your setting.

For an updated list of areas of presumed community transmission, please refer to WHO situation reports for country classification.

WHO: Coronavirus disease (COVID-2019) situation reports

COVID-19 AND ANIMALS & FOOD PRODUCTS

What is the risk of COVID-19 infection from animals or animal products imported from affected areas?

There is no evidence that any of the animals or animal products authorised for entry into the European Union pose a risk to the health of EU citizens as a result of the presence of COVID-19.

What is the risk of COVID-19 infection from food products imported from affected areas?

There has been no report of transmission of COVID-19 via food and therefore there is no evidence that food items imported into the European Union in accordance with the applicable animal and public health regulations pose a risk for the health of EU citizens in relation to COVID-19. The main mode of transmission is from person to person.

What is the risk of COVID-19 infection from contact with pets and other animals in the EU?

Current research links COVID-19 to certain types of bat as the original source, but does not exclude the involvement of other animals. Several types of coronaviruses can infect animals and can be transmitted to other animals and people. There is evidence that companion animals (e.g. dogs or cats) have a risk of infection when in close contact with COVID-19 infected humans. As a general precaution, it is always wise to observe basic principles of hygiene when in contact with animals.




National information resources for the public on COVID-19

EUROPE:

 

Country Institute  Website National helplines
Austria Federal Ministry Republic of Austria: Social Affairs, Health, Care and Consumer Protection Federal sozialministerium.at +43 800 555 621
Belgium Federal Public Service: Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment info-coronavirus.be +32 800 14689
Bulgaria Ministry of Health mh.government.bg +359 2 807 87 57
Croatia Croatian Institute of Public Health hzjz.hr +385 91 468 30 32;  +385 99 468 30 01
Cyprus Ministry of Health moh.gov.cy +357 1420
Czech Republic Ministry of Health mzcr.cz +420 724 810 106; +420 725 191 367
Denmark Danish Health Authority sst.dk +45 72 22 74 59
Estonia Ministry of Social Affairs koroonaviirus.ee +372 634 6630; +372 634 1220
Finland Finnish institute for health and welfare thl.fi +358 295 535 535
France Government of the French Republic gouvernement.fr +33 800 130 000
Germany Federal Ministry of Health bundesgesundheitsministerium.de +49 30 346 465 100
Greece National Public Health Institute of Greece eody.gov.gr/ +30 210 521 2054
Hungary Hungarian Government koronavirus.gov.hu +36 6 80 277 455; +36 6 80 277 456
Iceland Directorate of Health landlaeknir.is +354 544 4113, 1700
Ireland Health Service Executive hse.ie +353 1850 24 1850
Italy Ministry of Health salute.gov.it +39 1500
Latvia Centre for the Prevention and Control of Diseases spkc.gov.lv +371 67387661
Liechtenstein Government of Liechtenstein regierung.li/coronavirus +423 230 30 30
Lithuania Ministry of Health sam.lrv.lt +370 8 618 79984
Luxembourg Ministry of Health msan.gouvernement.lu +352 8002 8080
Malta Government of Malta deputyprimeminister.gov.mt +356 21324086
Netherlands National Institute for Public Health and the Environment rivm.nl +31 800-1351
Norway Norwegian Institute of Public Health fhi.no +47 815 55 015
Poland Government of Poland gov.pl +48 800 190 590
Portugal Ministry of Health dgs.pt/corona-virus +351 808 24 24 24
Romania Ministry of Health ms.ro +40 800 800 358
Slovakia Public Health Authority of the Slovak Republic uvzsr.sk +421 917 222 682
Slovenia Government of Slovenia gov.si +386 31 646 617; 080 1404*
Spain Government of Spain mscbs.gob.es Regional numbers are found here
Sweden Public Health Agency of Sweden folkhalsomyndigheten.se +46 113 13
Switzerland Federal Office of Public Health bag.admin.ch/novel-cov +41 58 463 00 00
UK Government of UK gov.uk 111 (dialled from UK)

References

  1. Wuhan City Health Committee (WCHC). Wuhan Municipal Health and Health Commission's briefing on the current pneumonia epidemic situation in our city 2019 [updated 31 December 2019, 14 January 2020].
  2. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Risk assessment: Outbreak of acute respiratory syndrome associated with a novel coronavirus, Wuhan, China; first update 2020 [updated 22 January 2020]. Stockholm: ECDC; 2020.
  3. Xinhuanet. Experts claim that a new coronavirus is identified in Wuhan 2020 [14 January 2020].
  4. Holmes E. Initial genome release of novel coronavirus 2020 [14 January 2020]. Available from: http://virological.org/t/initial-genome-release-of-novel-coronavirus/319.
  5. World Health Organization. Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) SITUATION REPORT – 1, 20 January 2020. Geneva: WHO; 2020.
  6. Du Z, Wang L, Chauchemez S, Xu X, Wang X, Cowling BJ, et al. Risk for transportation of 2019 novel coronavirus disease from Wuhan to other cities in China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020 May.
  7. Santé publique France. Epidémie de coronavirus Covid-19 au départ de Wuhan, Chine. Paris: Santé publique France; 2020. [Cited on 14 February 2020].
  8. Bayerisches Staatsministerium für Gesundheit und Pflege. Bestätigter Coronavirus - Fall in Bayern – Infektionsschutzmaßnahmen laufen. Munich: BSfGuP; 2020.
  9. World Health Organization. Statement on the second meeting of the International Health Regulations (2005) Emergency Committee regarding the outbreak of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). Geneva: WHO; 2020.
  10. Phelan A, Katz R, Gostin L. The novel coronavirus originating in Wuhan, China: challenges for global health governance. JAMA. 2020;323(8):709-710. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.1097.
  11. Chinazzi M, Davis JT, Ajelli M, Gioanni C, Litvinova M, et al. The effect of travel restrictions on the spread of the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) outbreak. medRxiv pre-print.
  12. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Situation update, 3 March 2020. Stockholm: ECDC; 2020.
  13. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Outbreak of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID19): situation in Italy – 23 February 2020. ECDC: Stockholm; 2020.

 

 

 

 

 

 

WAMS’ COVID-19 PATIENT MANAGEMENT PROTOCOL

WAMS, the World Academy of Medical Sciences, as the sole official world institution of medical sciences of its kind, puts its principal aim on the task of clearly informing the public and medical audience about the infamous coronavirus COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic and its impact on global human health through its COVID-19 program and through its free digital publication "WAMS' COVID-19 Patient Management Protocol". It brings notice to the characteristics of the phenomenon in various aspects of primordial relevance as an international emergency. This task is being shared among the members of the Academy and its scientific partners across the world with a united spirit of cooperation and dedication to the adequate dissemination of information regarding COVID-19's historical background, geographical distribution, risk assessment, personal health guide, containment & prevention measures, as well as recommendations for public and private sectors to follow.

WAMS Coronavirus Safety Committee

Our dedicated members addressing the pandemic situation.

ilievasiliev2

Dr. Ilie Vasiliev, MD

First Senior Vice President
valerishev

Dr. Valeri Shevchenko, MD

Chairman of the WAMS International Board of Biotechnology/Medical Technology
ettore

Dr. Ettore Piero Valente, MD

Chairman of the WAMS European Division
azfar

Dr. M. Azfar, MS, FRCSEd, FACS

Chairman of the WAMS Middle-East and North African Division
ira2

Ira S. Pastor

Chief Global Officer
joeltraje

Dr. Joel I. Osorio, MD

Chairman of the WAMS Americas Division
alexdelaparra

Alejandro De la Parra Solomon

Member of the WAMS Executive Council
walternbini
michaelcoroneos

Dr. Michael Coroneos, FRCS, FACS

Chairman of the Education and Training Board
sergei3

Dr. Sergei Paylian, MD

Member of the WAMS Executive Council
kuohui

Dr. Kuo-Hui Su, MD

Chairman WAMS International Medical Research Council
larisaspinel

Dr. Larisa Spinei, MD, PhD

Chairwoman of the WAMS International Board of Biostatistics
gerardo

Dr. Gerardo Jiménez Sánchez, MD, PhD

Chairman of the WAMS Genomic Medicine Division
constantiniavorschi

Dr. Constantin Iavorschi MD, PhD

Chairman of the WAMS International Board of Pulmonary Medicine
elenatudor

Dr. Elena Tudor, MD, PhD

Chairwoman of the WAMS International Board of Tuberculosis
Osinakachi SQUARE white

Osinakachi Akuma Kalu

Chairman of the Council for the Youth Development of Nigeria
sergiumatcovschi

Dr. Sergiu Matcovschi, MD, PhD

Chairman of the WAMS International Board of Internal Medicine
vladimirvartanov

Dr. Vladimir Vartanov, MD, PhD

Chairman of the WAMS International Board of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care
shanin

Dr. Shahin Gavanji, MD

Chairman of the Asian Council
Jaspal

Dr. Chandanpreet Singh Jaspal, DDS, BDS

Chairman of the WAMS Dentistry Division
azizollah

Dr. Azizollah Bakhtari, MD

Chairman of the WAMS Council of Iran
douglas

Dr. Douglas Colina, MD

Chairman of the WAMS Venezuelan Council
emad

Dr. Emad Fahim, MBBS

Fellow of the Academy
fengchiho

Dr. Feng-Chi (Frank) Ho, PhD

Chairman of the WAMS Singaporean Council
drfeliciatshite

Dr. Felicia Tshite, MD, BSc, MBChB

Chairwoman of the WAMS South African Council
drfares

Dr. Youssef Fares, MD, PhD, FACS, FICS

Chairman, WAMS National Council of Lebanon
ismailburud

Dr. Ismail Burud, MD

Chairman of the WAMS Malaysian Council
2b5c9aa

Dr. M. Luisetto, MD

Chairman of the Italian Council
ricardoge

Dr. Ricardo Ge Martins, MD

Chairman of the WAMS Brazilian Council
alpha

Dr. Alpha I. Balde, MD, MS

Chairman of the WAMS Chinese Council
MirtaDAmbra

Dr. Teresa Mirta D’Ambra, MD

Chairwoman of the WAMS Argentinian Council
Lejla S

Dr. Lejla Stojanovic, MD

Chairwoman of the WAMS Council of Serbia
ericklien

Eric Klien

Honorary Member of the Academy Faculty
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